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Voice search: Creepy or helpful?

Voice search is becoming a greater part of how consumers decide to interact with search engines. Even with just Siri, voice search is becoming a more popular tool. Then came Google Home and Amazon Echo to expand the market for voice search devices.

Voice search marketplace

According to Digiday, Amazon's cheaper Echo option is dominating the voice search field. There is plenty of competition of the field of apps already on these platforms, and it's hard to keep users interacting. They may be using it for tasks like answering questions, searching, texting or listening to music, but they don't seem to be sticking around.

Personally, I find voice search on the phone doesn't really catch what I'm saying especially if it's a complex word. I almost never use voice search for this reason: by the time Siri understands what I am saying, I could have typed a response myself. While it might be useful in situations when people shouldn't be using their phone (like driving), I have never found myself to use it in another situation.

Growing voice search trend

Despite my own proclivity, voice search is a growing trend that marketers should look into capitalizing on. According to Search Engine Land, voice search will change how people search and interact with technology.

Google announced at I/O that 20 percent of all searches have voice intent... ComScore even estimates that by 2020, a full 50 percent of all searches will be by voice.
— Search Engine Land

Forbes agrees that voice search will be one of the top trends for 2017.

Questions of privacy, data security, and accuracy

There continues to be the question of privacy and data security with voice search devices. For home search devices with a voice assistant (i.e. Alexa), I find them a little intrusive. Every command ever issued to Alexa is stored on Amazon servers because it is listening all the time.

Voice search also isn't perfect, there have been issues with people of a similar name or it ordering items without owner's permission.

While I enjoy using a friend's voice search for playing music at a party or to help text something simple, for me at least as a consumer, I won't be using it personally in the near future. As a marketer, I'm excited to see how companies like Amazon address privacy issues and how other businesses can keep innovating (or trying to innovate) in this space.

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Reaching millennials should be a priority for employers

Millennials are the generation born from 1982 to 2004 who are slowly coming up in the workforce. Older generations complain Millennials are a variation of "slow, lazy, and entitled." It's nothing new when it comes to the workforce cycle.

However, that doesn't make the assertions that I am lazy, self-entitled, and accustomed to being rewarded (i.e. trophy kid) for being a "special snowflake" any less tiresome. I'm tired of seeing articles like this describing how to connect with the younger generation followed by comments deriding the writer.

After all, there is a large disconnect in the way that employees want to be treated and what they are experiencing from companies. Only 32% of employees are actively engaged, the majority are disengaged (52%) or actively disengaged (18%) at work according to the 2015 Gallup poll

Millennials and older generations are not that different

According to a Gallup poll, each generation is fairly similar in what they want from employers. The most notable differences in opportunities to grow and learn and opportunities for advancement; millennials are more concerned about this when applying to jobs then the previous generations. However, this may be due to student debt rates and up and coming employees looking for ways to demonstrate their worth and grow with the company.

According to Deloitte, Millenials want work/life balance, opportunities to progress, and flexibility from their employer. Deloitte even offers suggestions for employers like mentorship to help keep younger employees engaged in the workforce.

Millennials make up the majority of the workforce

Millennials are already the majority of the workforce, according to WIRED. They will make up 75% of the workforce by 2030.

We may be more tech savvy, value open communication, and are looking for a strong sense of purpose. But our energy and the fact that we care about what a business stands for should help businesses appeal to younger generations, as well as remain innovative and competitive, while the spending power of Millennials increases.

Companies are capitalizing on Millennial spend

Millennials represent a $2.45 trillion spending power which means that responding to millennial requests shouldn't be an opportunity to mock or belittle. As consumers, we will even spend more with a brand that we believe in and that insight has companies like Whole Foods moving to capitalize on this opportunity.

Especially after reading articles saying about how millennials should stop buying avocado toast if they want to save for buying a house (when in reality there is plenty of student debt on top of a recession when students were graduating from school), I think that organizations should take a moment to think about how they are appealing to the new spending powerhouse that makes up the majority of the workforce.

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"Brand killers"

"This is a brand killer," is something that I have been hearing of late. A "brand killer" is something that can be described as violating what people expect and will tolerate from a brand, to the point that it affects the business itself. Between United Airlines, Publix, and Bose, the hits keep coming.

Brand Killers Pin.png

I think people feel the most concern or emotion when a brand violates their purpose and engage in activities that deviate from our expectations. For example:

  • United Airlines' "fly the friendly skies" is meant to get you from point A to point B in a fast, safe way. Recently, social was abuzz with everything going on with a passenger assaulted on the flight.
  • Publix is meant to provide amazing service and food. Recently, seven stores failed public safety inspections (as an avid Publix fan and advocate, I was very sad).
  • Bose is meant to provide a great listening experience. Instead, they are allegedly recording what people are listening to and selling it to other companies.

As these are brands I use semi-frequently and had some attachment to, I was very surprised that these types of stories happened. With the advent of the web, and the ability for people to post just about anything (a challenge that Facebook is scrambling to address), will brands be forced to step up their game?

Some have already started by working on their marketing, like [redacted]. Some have been trying with new products. As how people interact with brands and the amount people can self-publish changes, it is fundamentally changing how people interact with brands and how brands need to respond to customers.

Social media has changed the position of power from the company to the customer. Previously, companies didn't have the self-check of their consumers reviewing or talking about them since publishing was limited to the empowered newspapers and magazines. Now, consumers have the ability to be an additional sensor on what companies are doing and demand they do better.

How will brands continue to step up (or fall down) moving forward and what can brands do to proactively work with consumers?

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How do I develop a cohesive content calendar?

Developing cohesion in your message, across a variety of platforms, is key to driving customer engagement. From blogging to your social media marketing, make sure your message is on target by following these easy steps.

Decide what to be known for

First, start with your brand and the image you want to portray. Is it funny, happy, inspiring? Choose how you want your brand to be described and what you want it to stand for.

For Island Traders Clothing, the brand is fun, youthful, and beachy. The brand should be known for it's ease of style, wear-ability, and travel-ability. The content I look for falls into several categories that align with these adjectives, including boho, travel, beaches, and plus size.

If you're looking to re-invent what your brand is known for, think about something very specific you want it to mean. Overreaching your brand image by being associated with too many things can turn its image into one that doesn't stand for anything.

Know where are your target customers

Know who is your market and decide what ways are you going to reach them. Start by having an idea of who is on the top social media platforms. By starting here, you can eliminate using channels that don't make sense.

For example, I would not advertise or promote a primarily female brand or product on Google Plus since it is primarily a male audience. If you have plenty of time and resources, you may feel inclined to add more channels, but think about what type of investment you are willing to make in each one and the likely return. By focusing on the channels that your core audience already engages with, it will be easier to gain followers and engagement.

Big Idea

What is the big idea that holds all of your content together? It may take some time to brainstorm but the big idea is an important part of the process because it helps formalize your content buckets into a specific message. If the message is going to be uniform across channels, it's important to define the big idea up front.

For Nike, it's the idea that anyone can be an athlete or "Just do it." The idea informs every piece of collateral they create, from commercials to billboards. If you're looking for inspiration, check out Ad Age's top campaigns of the century.

Develop and curate content

Mix your channels with found and created content. Created content can support your brand and the image you want it to have in the market. Curated content will help people use your channel as a resource. According to a social media study from Rutgers, informers (people that provide information) outperform meformers (people mostly posting about themselves) on social media.

While it differs per social media platform, think about having around a 50/50 split of information promoting yourself and related information that your audience cares about. By creating a resource, instead of a shout-out page for your brand, people are likely to find more value in the channel you manage and engage with it more.

All of the content chosen, from articles or posts from others on social media, should still reinforce your brand image.

Clever captioning

Use all of your character space wisely. Your captions should be memorable and reinforce the overall message behind your brand. Using this space to your advantage will drive engagement, especially if you don't forget a call to action.

Each segment and platform is unique, so tailor each post to a social media channel rather than mass posting. Also, take advantage of hashtags on the relevant platforms. They can help your message sound more interesting and allow people to find your content.

Scheduling posts and content

Study your target audience and know what generally works best for each channel. You can start with a general schedule recommendation, like later at night for Instagram, while you build an audience. As the customers and people engaging with your brand grows, you can customize the schedule of posts per channel to best suit your desired audience.

A content calendar for each of your channels will help ensure that your communications are completed on the necessary channels and can help plan out timing. This way, your content reaches your audience when they need to hear about it, and in the ways they want.

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Making honesty a priority: Building trust in a "dishonest" business

Do you trust advertisements? After hearing all of the promises, what do you really think?

Customers can have a natural distrust of advertising and what it's trying to sell them. The act of being "sold to" can put people on edge. It's the reason that car salesman are unpopular and that Carvana exists.

People can be distrustful because they have been let down before. 30Rock makes a play at this reason with Chatterton's cigarette advertisements:

Marketing professionals become tasked with overcoming this bias, but what can we do at an individual level?

Eliminate false claims

Don't make extravagant promises with the products effects that are untrue. If your product offers amazing results, shout it to the rooftop. But don't mislead consumers. Puffery statements are valid, but make them unique to the business.

Be clear about your offer

Getting stuck in the fine print of an advertisment is necessary for some industries, but could be much simpler in others. Laws require medical advertisements to disclose side effects, but phone carrier commercials carry just as much text. Marketers can use industry stereotypes and fears to showcase how their product or service is not following the norm. Suddenlink does this by attacking the fine print found in contracts, followed by a clear offer that lacks an asterisk.

Showcase your differentiation

By connecting with your target audience, marketers can ease their specific fears about being taken advantage of. Marketers can showcase the bad scenario, and then make a promise at the end of their spot that can ease customers' reluctance. Johnson dealership commercials do a great job at highlighting people's fear, a badgering salesperson, and promise a better experience.

Work with reputable people

Working in marketing, find like-minded people who know they have an ethical responsibility to  provide consumers with reliable information. By being around people with similar values, it will reinforce ethical standards. Find a shop that values honesty in what they do.

Let customers try it out

If you can, and your product is one that needs to be tested, let customers try it out so they can dispel the fears they have themselves. Opening the business's products up to customer trial will help the company gain further transparency. Zappos overcame the stigma of buying shoes online with a simple and effective policy that allowed consumers to reduce the stress of trial: customers enjoy free shipping, free returns, and 24/7 customer service!

3rd party validation

Are you wanting to claim that your product is the fastest or the best? Use a third party service to validate your claims. People trust ratings systems to let them know how well a car withstands crashes, how great a local restaurant will be, and if the movie pick of the week will be family friendly. If your product is amazing, and it gets rated by a third party, let your customers know that the business is doing well.

Let customers rate it

Open your products up to customer ratings. Word of mouth is the best marketing you can get, with ratings being the online form. Trust your own products and services enough to ask for reviews. A customer will be more likely to listen to another customer than a sales pitch through an employee or advertisement.

What other ways can marketers help cultivate a more transparent presence for their products and brands?

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New Year, New Clients: 11 Questions to Guide Brand Discovery

Every year marketing budgets turn over. Every year has the potential to bring new clients to your marketing business. However, any branding challenge presented can be misaligned if the company is not in touch with their consumers.

After receiving client information, the best way to understand if they are on the right track is to conduct consumer research. There are many ways to get at what your brand means to consumers, but the best way to find out is to ask them what they think.

But how do you get the type of insight you need? A great way to conduct consumer research is through focus groups. Focus groups include 6 to 8 people discussing a similar topic. Beware of group think, where one individual sways the group or dominates the conversation. While it does happen, setting ground rules with the group can help allay that concern. Additionally, focus groups are great for topics that are comfortable for discussion in front of others. If your brand is more sensitive to talk about, it may be a good idea to conduct these questions in a one on one setting.

Tips on conducting your focus group:

  • Choose people from your target audience - you may segment them if you have a large number of people participating. For example, you may want to split customers and potential customers.
  • Record your session- Inform them that you will be recording the session. This will help recall for later presentations and allow your team to collect direct quotes, which may have more clout when presenting your findings to your client.
  • Keep the setup comfortable - Make sure your group is settled in and comfortable. An uncomfortable audience is unlikely to yield insightful answers.
  • Set guidelines- Let people know that there is no right answer, they may say what they are thinking. Also, ask them to conduct themselves respectfully if others disagree with their opinion.
  • Use funneling questions, from general to more specific, and to ask questions they may have never thought about before.

Start at an industry level in order to remove any preconceived biases they may have against your brand in particular, or to keep brand opinions from coloring the rest of the answers.

Industry discovery

Who do you think are the main players in [insert industry]?

Understanding who is top of mind to your targeted consumer is key to brand positioning. For example, if your brand is not listed then marketing may want to drive more customer awareness.

How would you describe the brands lists? What do you associate with each brand?

Get an understanding of the other players in your industry and the associations attached to them. Make sure at this point to ask follow up questions like why they have that particular association. Asking about associations may bring up places they noticed the brand, like advertisements, sponsorships, and product placement.

What brands, if any, do you purchase?

While you hope they all purchase your brand, if they don't it will bring extra illumination on why customers are going to a competitor. Also, if you have a more popular product, you can potentially conduct two research groups and have one be customers and one be potential customers.

What leads you to purchase an item in this category? How often does this happen?

Learning more about customer behavior can guide targeting and media placement. For example, your product may be one they think about on the way to work, or it might be a light night indulgence. Either will dictate a different time and place for advertising to them.

Why [x brand] in particular?

See if a different type of catalyst drives consumers to choose your product over the one in the category. In this question, if there is no difference, there may be an opportunity to help guide consumers to your product.

Next, move on to brand discovery to learn more about the particular of the brand you represent.

Brand discovery

How would you describe [x brand]?

If they have already described it in the first questions, feel free to skip this question or see if they have any additional associations.

Describe someone who would shop at [x brand]?

Uncover any difference between who shops at the brand, and who customers perceive shop at the brand. If the perception does not match up with reality, maybe showcasing a customer in the upcoming campaign or working with a sponsor to drive brand image.

If [x brand] had a spokesperson, who would it be and why?

If the brand has a spokesperson, asking this questions will help see if they are having any traction with consumers. This may also uncover additional associations with your brand.

What would you personify [x brand as]? Describe [x brand] as if it were a person.

If a spokesperson is less enlightening, customers may be ready to transform your brand into a person. Is your brand fun, thinks too much of itself, outgoing, or unattainable? Personifying the company's brand can help clarify consumer's opinions and perceptions.

Who do you think are the main competitors to [x brand]?

This question will give the marketing team a great idea of who consumers think their greatest competitors are. This may shed light on if your competitors are not what your client expects. For example, a barrier or competitor may be spending time with family and not having time to shop rather than choosing another competitor from the category.

Why do you buy from [x brand]? Why don't you buy from [x brand]?

If there is a specific reason they do not choose your brand, this may become the focus of the campaign. Addressing their primary concern may help customers overcome their objection.

Addressing issues

If there are any issues uncovered during the course of the focus group, this may be a great time to follow up. If the client had any additional concerns they wanted to address, covering them at the end will allow more focused attention since the group has already been thinking about your brand for awhile.

If there are no pressing issues, you can also conduct a final activity to help shed light on your brand, like:

  • Draw a picture of your personified brand interacting with others
  • Present the group with magazines and ask them to cut out what images they associate with the brand to make a collage (this can be used as a powerful example to the client of what customers associate)
  • Write down one word you would use to describe [x brand]
  • Find a photo within the magazines that helps describe how you feel when you engage with [x brand] and its products

Your new client will be impressed you uncovered or verified information about their brand, and you'll have the benefit of additional customer insight.

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What can marketing do in the face of a "bad" product?
Nothing kills a bad product faster than good advertising.
— Bill Bernbach

Nothing like expediting the demise of an already lackluster or bad product. But as marketers and advertisers, we don't always have the luxury or choosing our clients or the influence to adjust a client's offering. We may suggest a change of pricing, can possibly examine point of purchase branding, and maybe even help with improving brand image.

But what happens when all of our work gets someone in the door, and the customer promptly does a roundabout to leave?

There's no shortage of "bad" products, but it's our job to show a them little advertising love. This means:

Showing the product in the best light possible

Yes, McDonald's hamburgers don't really look like they do in photos. But, food stylists and  photographers get paid the big bucks to takes photos of food that capture it in an appetizing way. People may even have questions about why there is a discrepancy between photos and reality. You can address it like McDonald's did.

Responding to customer frustrations

Instead of addressing the difference, maybe you have a client that's ready to correct it and turn things around. To get people to trust the brand again, address the main concern they have with purchasing your product. For Domino's, they addressed people's concerns about receiving "bad pizza." Domino's asked people to take pictures of their pizzas. And then they fixed it.

Packaging successes

While a client may not be a "winner" all of the time, marketers can highlight where products succeed. Domino's Pizza Turnaround became a documentary and strove to re-brand with #newpizza. Now, the company has been opening even more stores.

If a product is not "better" than the others, marketers can also call attention to flaws. Depending on the market, you may be able to create an underdog story like Avis.

Create ancillary marketing or products

"Bad" can mean a lot of things, including not user friendly. For products that don't stick to the adage "Simplify," creating additional products that help consumers circumnavigate annoyances. Like parking apps. Or the new "order before you arrive" function on the Starbucks mobile app.

Not user friendly can also mean a design flaw that creates a new category, like cell phone cases. There was a time when you could drop your phone or throw it across the room, pop in the battery if it fell out, and the phone was still functional. Now, we have phone cases- an ancillary product for phones that are more breakable than before- which make up $20 billion in revenue in 2012.

What other ways have you handled marketing an imperfect product?

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How do you gain experience to cultivate new skills?
You seem like a great candidate, but don’t quite have the experience we’re looking for.

Sound familiar? Have you been a part of the cycle where you don't have experience so you can't get experience?

Well, how do you escape?

  • Volunteer - Find a nonprofit, local organization, team or group that needs your professional talents. Then help them out to build your repertoire of skills.
  • Reach out - Ask friends and family if they may know of someone that needs help in the area you excel in. They may just need another hand on deck to get to a pet project you can contribute to.
  • Network - Meet new people, be interested in what they have to say, and see if you might be able to help each other out through a trade of services or referrals

All three of these avenues require skills necessary to marketing success. Become:

A great communicator.

Be able to explain who you are, what you can offer and what you are looking for. By being able to connect these three things together, people can understand the value you bring and will have a greater understanding of what you are trying to move toward. In one study I read, individuals prompted to list the items in their refrigerator could list more when prompted for "white items in the fridge."

Comfortable asking for opportunities. And keep asking.

People may forget what you were looking for. It takes an average of seven times of hearing the same message before people remember it. Keep asking for the next opportunity, you never know who might jump at it.

Open to new people and experiences. Or get comfortable with being uncomfortable.

New business, new ideas, new ventures, these all require an element of "new." By being open to the unexpected, you can make the most of chance encounters that may be beneficial to you. This is another way of reminding yourself to say "yes" instead of shutting down with "can't", "shouldn't", or "not right now."

What other ways do you gain experience with skills?

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Keep asking great questions

One great skill I have been reflecting on has been the ability to ask better questions. It's necessary in marketing, but can be a great aid in other areas of life as well. Asking better questions can be the key to greater innovation, lead to discovery of purpose, and can create better conversations.

Creating greater innovation

Last week, I attended a talk from AMA Academy. I had never gone before but was very excited to hear about the digital age and the technology shaping changes. What I was not expecting was a look back into the evolution of man and how that shaped human's engagement with digital technologies.

This presentation was given by Brad Rossacci, Director of Innovation for 900 lbs. of Creative, who gave an interesting presentation on how neuroscience shapes engagement and how his company has been integrating technology into successful marketing campaigns.


He asked a better question: why do people interact with technology in a particular way? How can neuroscience help explain success in campaigns? He was particularly enthusiastic about neurotransmitters and their role in gamification. As someone who studied psychology in college, I found his approach to marketing very interesting and was impressed by the new ways they found to integrate technology and marketing.

Discovery of purpose

Younger children ask an average of 300 questions per day and as they age that number declines. By fostering creative thinking and creative questioning at a young age, parents may help children discover a question that has gone unanswered.

This story stuck with me when I think about great questions and people's response to them. A four year old asked his father, "Why is Saturn the only planet with rings?" His dad didn't know the answer and wrote to NASA. NASA responded in ten minutes saying that they are not sure why rings form and:

“It’s a great question. You can tell him that’s exactly the kind of question a scientist would ask. Tell him there are many mysteries out there in space that will still be waiting when he grows up!”

Starting a better conversation

A couple weeks ago, I attended Houston's Social Media Breakfast which featured a talk on "Fake News, Pundits, Politics and Social Media in 2017." While I did not know much about the subject of media law, I thought I may learn a few new things. To my surprise, I realized there were a lot of questions I had never thought to ask.

One being, "How will social media change the political landscape and how media covers stories?" By going to an event out of my comfort zone, I helped discover new questions to ask and new ideas about how the media landscape may change, how politicians can use social media to circumvent traditional publishing, and how laws may need to catch up to cover political advertising in the social media environment.

These questions sparked a great conversation about the role of the media and how things are changing. If you're interested in learning more, the events are live streamed on Facebook and can be watched on demand later.

By developing exceptional questioning skills, marketers can bring an additional skill set to the fold.

What great questions have you asked lately?

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Does everyone fail? Yes.

I started thinking about failure after hearing the CEO of Spanx talking about the ways she has failed. I loved this video because it showcases a real life example of someone succeeding because of failing. It's one thing to know everyone fails, it's another to hear about a more specific time.

I love that she acknowledges failure is part of developing a successful mindset about how to succeed. Developing an emotional acceptance that failure is part of a process can help free yourself to the ability to fail.

I was also inspired by the video above and by my own current set of failures. I know I will fail, again and again, because that is the only way to succeed. Some of my more recent failures include:

Fail to plan ahead

I designed an entire site on one platform and then realized it wasn't going to be the best solution. I failed to do it right the first time, so I re-did the entire site. The site could not be automatically sent to the new platform, so I manually created the new store which looks much better than before. The new site also includes additional functionalities that will help the business to be more successful.

After all of the hard work, lessons learned, and outcomes realized, the problem solving and information if now ingrained. I learned a lot of information I never knew I didn't know. Success helped me realize things I missed or never considered.

Fail to be the right choice

I have been interviewing in Houston to find a full time position. My efforts include networking, applying online, and connecting with hiring managers. I completed my first full rounds of interviews and I was not the candidate they chose. While I was disappointed, I did have success in another area. At one of the events I attended, I met someone willing to let me do contract work part-time.

Don't get too caught up in one way to be successful. I try to remember that working in a traditional setting, or work in general, is not the only place I can succeed. By giving back, and helping others succeed, I managed to make a contact for an opportunity I was not looking for. Success can come in different forms.

Fail at meeting the "right person"

I have gone to many networking events over the past couple months thinking I was going to meet someone from my "dream company" there that would be the "right person." Instead of being overly focused on finding those people, I decided to mingle with whomever was nearby and gave out my business cards. While I never met anyone from the places I was looking for, one of the people I had met connected me with an amazing opportunity I never considered.

Don't get too hung up on what you think you are looking for. If I had been too wrapped up in finding "the right person" to speak with, I would never have connected with the individual that surprised me with unsolicited additional help. Success can come in unexpected places.

Success is not immediate. In response to failure, I remember the advice below which was the best advice I ever received. I take this into consideration and know that every time I fail, I am that much closer to success.

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Why do I need marketing?

Why do you need marketing? Marketing is the message that conveys why a prospect needs your product and how to reach you.

You may be engaging in marketing and don't realize it! If you've talked up your product, you have been using word of mouth to drive traffic to your location, whether physical or online. Word of mouth is the oldest form of marketing.

Marketing will give a business's customers a consistency of engagement so they can form their expectations. It is an integral part of the sale process since it is a systematic way to generate new leads.

Marketing helps generate awareness to bring in leads and nurture those leads until they are qualified for the sales team. It helps in the steps of the buyer's journey before and after a sale.

How has marketing helped you?

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What is marketing?

Welcome back to Question Friday! I have heard this question over and over again as I meet people. They ask, "What is marketing?"

Marketing is made up of product, price, placement and promotions (the 4 Ps of marketing). Sometimes the fifth P is considered public relations. Therefore, advertising and PR are functions of marketing but not all marketing is responsible for. Advertising, PR and marketing serve to promote the company or product with the intent of selling but use different tactics.

PR engenders a positive public image for the company so they are considered in the buying process. Advertising disseminates the product messaging through paid channels across mass media. Marketing helps ensure the product, price, placement and promotion set in place make the buy a win for the customer.

If you are an entrepreneur, you may be the one developing, promoting and selling your products. As a company scales, these functions no longer sit under one hat. They divide into maybe product managers, marketers, advertisers, public relations specialists, etc. Sometimes roles overlap, functions overlap, and there are advertisers and marketers providing a very similar function especially in the promotions area.

So what is marketing?

It is a host of go-to-market and maintenance activities that utilizes advertising and PR to drive demand. It also, depending on the structure of the organization, becomes of form of sales enablement by developing messaging and tools for the sales team to win accounts. It can be direct, but not usually delivered on a one-to-one basis by the marketer themselves unless that is in the form of engagement marketing at events.

I differentiate marketing and advertising promotions based on placement. The placement of advertisements can be paid or unpaid, and I delineate paid as a form of advertising and unpaid as a form of marketing. Advertisers pay for segments or spots in increments, whether it is for television, radio, or other mass media channels. Marketers may develop their messaging for unpaid channels, like their social media channels or website.

How do you define marketing?

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